# Why is Real Analysis Tough?

Real Analysis is an area of advanced mathematics that studies the properties of real numbers, sequences, functions, and limits. It is like the first introduction to “real” mathematics. Real Analysis goes beyond manipulating expressions and clever calculus tricks. It requires students to think critically, deeply, and logically about abstract concepts that may not have a clear-cut solution or an apparent application. It is probably hard for you because either you’ve never been challenged with a math class before and/or you don’t have much proof writing experience.

## FAQ

### What skills do I need to succeed in Real Analysis?

Real Analysis requires a strong foundation in algebra, calculus, and mathematical proofs. Before taking Real Analysis, you should be comfortable with algebraic manipulation, derivative and integral calculus, and basic set theory. You should also hone your mathematical proof writing skills by taking a course in discrete mathematics or by reading introductory books on mathematical proofs.

### Why is Real Analysis harder than Calculus?

Real Analysis is harder than Calculus because it is more abstract, rigorous, and theoretical. Calculus deals with concrete functions and specific applications, while Real Analysis deals with general concepts that may not have a clear visual context or a straightforward interpretation. In Calculus, we are taught how to differentiate and integrate functions, while in Real Analysis, we explore the limit, continuity, convergence, and other abstract concepts that underlie Calculus.

### What topics are covered in Real Analysis?

Real analysis covers a wide range of topics, including:

- The Real Number System: axioms, properties, completeness
- Sequences and Series: limits, convergence, divergence
- Continuous Functions: definition, properties, intermediate value theorem, uniform continuity
- Differentiation: definition, properties, mean value theorem, L’Hopital’s Rule
- Integration: definition, properties, fundamental theorem of Calculus, integration by parts
- Topology: open sets, closed sets, compactness, connectedness

### What resources can I use to learn Real Analysis?

To learn Real Analysis, you can use a variety of resources such as textbooks, online courses, video lectures, and practice problems. Here are some websites that offer excellent resources for Real Analysis:

- Real Analysis Lecture Series by Prof. Francis Su
- “A Course in Real Analysis” by Dr. Brian S. Thomson, Judith B. Bruckner, and Andrew M. Bruckner
- “Measure and Integration Theory” by Dr. Richard L. Wheeden and Dr. Antoni Zygmund
- Real Analysis Practice Problems by Prof. David Forehand

## Conclusion

Real Analysis can be a tough subject to learn, but it is also an essential one for anyone who wants to pursue a career in mathematics, physics, engineering, or computer science. By mastering the concepts of Real Analysis, you will gain not only a deep understanding of Calculus, but also a powerful tool for solving problems in various fields. Use the resources listed above, seek help from your professors and peers, practice, and never give up. With patience, perseverance, and dedication, you can overcome the challenges of Real Analysis and reap the rewards of one of the most fascinating subjects in mathematics.